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POPULATION: 3,751,000

  • 81% Lithuanians
  • 9% Russians
  • 7% Poles and
  • 3% others

AREA: 65,000 sq km (25,000 sq miles)

POPULATION DENSITY: 58 per sq km (36 per sq mile)

CAPITAL: Vilnius, 590,000 inhabitants

MAJOR CITIES: Kaunas 429,000 – Klaipeda 206,000 – Siauliai 148,000 – Panevezys 132,000


The word “Lithuania” was first mentioned in the Quedlinburg annals in 1009 A.D. In the 13th century the Lithuanian state was established. In the 15th century, the Lithuanian Grand Duchy became one of the most powerful medieval states of Eastern Europe. It covered the territory to the Black Sea in the south and almost to Moscow in the east. In 1569, a pact was concluded between Lithuania and Poland establishing a united state of Rzczpospolita. In 1795, after the final partition of Rzecpospolita, Lithuania was incorporated into Russia. For more than one century Lithuanians fought against tsarist oppression. In 1918, after the Bolshevik revolution, Lithuania proclaimed its independence and the restoration of Statehood. In 1940, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union. After 50 years, Lithuania once again proclaimed its independence in 1990.